, Biggest Online Store of Handicrafts Items, Paintings and Jewelry Accessories...
All About Travel, Development and Marketing Services


Handicrafts are devices or works of art that are made completely by hand or by the use of relatively simple tools. Such goods are usually made in the traditional way of manufacturing goods. Therefore, the knowledge of the art of craft is usually passed down from one generation to another. The items made using these traditional methods of manufacturing are usually produced in smaller quantities and they often represent the culture or religious beliefs of the community that makes them. The goods are also handmade from natural materials that are found in the environment of the particular economy.

Read More!

Biggest Online Store of Handicrafts Items


A painting is equal to thousand words, means a beautiful painting is equal to million of words. Paintings are one of the oldest art forms -- throughout history artists have played an important role in documenting social movements, spiritual beliefs and general life and culture.

History Of Paintings: The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from...

Read More!

Biggest Online Store of Unique Style Paintings

Mughal School of Arts - Mixture Style of Indian and Persian Art

Posted by Art Of Legend India [dot] Com On 4:29 AM
The Mughal emperors introduced their own style of paintings with Persian inspiration and added themes, colors and forms. Mughal paintings reflect an exclusive combination of Indian, Persian and Islamic styles, which evolved in India during the reigns of the Mughal emperors (in the 16–18 centuries). Mughal paintings developed and flourished during the reigns of Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan. Mughal Paintings were rich in variety which included portraits, events and scenes from the court life, wild life and hunting scenes, and illustrations of battle fronts, some paintings also depicted lovers in intimate positions. 

Mughal painting was essentially a court art; it developed under the patronage of the ruling Mughal emperors and began to decline when the rulers lost interest. The subjects treated were generally secular, consisting of illustrations to historical works and Persian and Indian literature, portraits of the emperor and his court, studies of natural life, genre scenes etc. 

Mughal paintings
The art of Mughal painting was introduced by the Mughal emperor Humayun, when he returned to India after his exile in Persia. He invited two Persian artists, Mir Sayyid Ali and Abu-us-Samad to return with him. The Mughal paintings that developed from this influence are a keen blend of Indian, Persian and Islamic styles. Akbar's reign (1556-1605) ushered a new era in Indian miniature paintings. He was the first monarch who established in India an atelier under the supervision of two Persian master-artists, Mir Sayyed Ali and Abdul-ul-Samad Khan. Earlier, both of them had served under the patronage of Humayun in Kabul and accompanied him to India when he regained his throne in 1555. Later, a number of artists were engaged to work under their guidance to decorate Akbar's imperial studio at Fatehpur Sikri. One of the first productions of that school of painting was the Hamzanama series, which, according to the court historian, Badayuni, was started in 1567 and completed in 1582. It is interesting to note that most of the artists belonged to the Hindu communities hailing from Gujarat, Gwalior and Kashmir, who gave birth to a new school of painting, popularly known as the Mughal School of Painting

Akbar commissioned a large number of manuscripts, illustrated in this style, for his Imperial Library. However, this style of painting reached its zenith during the reigns of Jahangir (1605-1627) and Shah Jahan (1628-1658), but declined rapidly during the years that followed under the rule of Aurangzeb (1658-1707).
The earliest known manuscript illustrated in this fashion during Akbar's regime is the Duwal-Rani-Khizar-Khani. Written by the renowned poet Amir Khusro, the illustrations are attributed to Mir Sayyed Ali, the master-painter, who undertook the work in 1568. The paintings of the Hamzanama which represented the most ambitious project undertaken during the golden era of Akbar, were executed on large canvas made of cotton cloth. Initially, the work was started by about 30 artists, but their number grew to more than a hundred at the time of its completion. The work on these illustrations served as an excellent training ground for the painters of the royal atelier. The style of Mughal paintings is distinguished by the dramatic action and bold brush work. Apart from the Hamzanama, many other manuscripts such as the Razmanama, the Baburnama, the Akbarnama etc., were also illustrated in similar vein. 

It was in the last quarter of the 16th century that European influence began to affect the Mughal School. Hence, a number of Christian themes were also painted by the Mughal artists. Jahangir was an enthusiastic patron of the arts. He possessed an innate quality for the appreciation of paintings and talent for observing the nature keenly. Whenever he came across an unusual plant or bird or animal, he instructed his artists to paint them. Particularly, Mansur, one of the most talented painters, excelled in animal and bird motifs. The art of painting attracted and charmed Jahangir so much that his period is remarkable for beautiful illustrations of several manuscripts. Jahangir's period is characterised by naturalism, both in colour and form. During Shah Jahan's reign (1628-1658), the Mughal artists' favourite themes for paintings were emperors and princes visiting Sufi saints. In addition, court scenes, portraits and studies of birds and animals continued to be depicted. 

The fine quality of the Mughal painting was sustained during the period of Shah Jahan, even though he paid greater attention to architecture. The high quality work of the earlier reigns did not survive during the period of Aurangzeb, although some good portraiture and hunting scenes were executed in his time. Being an orthodox Muslim, he did not encourage the art of painting. However, in the reigns of Farrukhsyiar (1713-1719) and Muhammad Shah (1719-1748), the art of miniature painting was revived again. A known romantic as Muhammad Shah was, love scenes and romantic subjects began to feature frequently, which seemed to rebound on Aurangzeb's puritanical attitude. The era of Mughal painting came to an end during the period of Shah Alam (1759-1806) when the Mughal Empire was virtually confined to an area enclosed by the walls of the Red Fort in Delhi. 

The style of paintings in the provincial cities of the Mughal Empire such as Murshidabad, Faizabad, Lucknow and Patna has been described as Provincial Mughal. The Mughal Governors of these provinces had assumed independent status following the decline of Mughal Empire during the middle of the 18th century. There were no drastic changes in the Provincial Mughal Style of paintings, but it has certain recognizable features of its own. Mir Chand was one of the best known artists of this period. Other provincial artists sought to imitate earlier work to suit the varying tastes of their patrons rather than evolving distinctive styles of their own.

The school of painting that flourished under the reign of kings of south Indian was tagged as Deccan School of Miniature painting. As for the Deccani painting, initially it was a product of the Sheraz Style of Persian painting and the local art forms of the Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar. Later, it was influenced by the Mughal Style during the late 17th and 18th century. The earliest surviving examples of Deccani painting go back to circa A.D. 1565-1567 and are now scattered in many collections belonging to Ahmadnagar and Bijapur Schools. A school of Deccani painting also flourished at Golconda, the style of which is remarkably consistent in quality and is a combination of high degree of technical excellence with refinement of line and a subtle richness in its color palette. 

Adil Shahi, Nizam Shahi and Qutub Shahi rulers were the patrons in the development of Deccani School of paintings. A lot of artists flourished during the rule of Ibrahim Adil Shah II (1580-1627), who was a great lover of paintings. It is evident from the availability of numerous portraits of Ibrahim Adil Shah in different museums of the world. The Deccani school of Painting got inspiration from the Mughal School and evolved its own unique and very characteristic style. In the Prince of Wales Museum of Mumbai, the painting gallery has some typical examples of Deccani paintings, which have pale green, mineral-colored backgrounds with figures placed squarely in the foreground.  

Deccan style paintings
The school of painting that flourished under the sponsorship of rulers of south India was known as Deccan miniature paintings. The performers who practiced this style lived using the cities of Ahmadnagar, Bijapur, Golconda and Aurangabad. The states Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Golkonda and Hyderabad formed the region known as Deccan. Besides a distinct geographical identity, Deccan had its own distinction in art, cultures, dramatics, social values, costumes, religious beliefs, thoughts and ideas. 

Later generations of Muslim rulers of Deccani states, had their roots in Indian soil with little of Iran, Persia or Turkey in them. Rulers like Chand Bibi turned to be highly patriotic and some of them inclined even to Indian mysticism. Besides, the artists they had were mostly local or the local descendants of earlier immigrants. If we observe Deccani artists’ work with artistic eyes, we can see that the Deccan artists were influenced from the style of Persian and Turkish painters. The style and themes in Deccani miniature paintings are an amalgamation of various art elements and influences, especially the elements of early indigenous art traditions of the Deccan and the Islamic idiom of Iran, Persia and Turkey. 

Persian paintings
Persian paintings were mostly about the pride of the kings and rulers. There were also religious Persian paintings, which represented the Persian interpretations of Islam. The art of Persian paintings belongs from 6th of century and mostly influenced by Mughal rulers. Persian art is known for its architecture and production of exquisite miniature paintings. These paintings are renowned for their use of geometry and vivid colors. The most complex situations (battles, court scenes etc.) were absorbed by the Persian artists to create comprehensive works of art.Agha Reza Reza-e Abbasi (1565–1635) was the most renowned Persian painter and calligrapher of the Isfahan School, which flourished during the Safavid period under the patronage of Shah Abbas I.

The origin of the Persian miniature is difficult to trace. The art form reached its peak mainly during the Mongol and Timurid periods (13th-16th century), and was greatly influenced by Chinese paintings as the Mongol rulers of Persia brought with them numerous Chinese artists to the court. 

Avadh and Hyderabad Paintings
Surdas in 16th century revived Krishna devotion by his epical creation Sursagr, which paints the life of Lord Krishna in verses. The compositions were compiled, illustrated and treasured in large numbers. With the decay of the Mughal Empire and the dispersal of its atelier, the regional schools became the new patrons of art. The principality of Avadh was a great centre of all forms of art, including literature, painting and music in the nineteenth century. all paintings are courtesy of Art of Legend.India.


0 Response to "Mughal School of Arts - Mixture Style of Indian and Persian Art"

Post a Comment

Company Overview

Art of Legend India has the distinction of being one of the best in the Indian Handicraft Industry. We are about 75 years old handicrafts manufacturer & exporter. We are having team of more than 500 craftsman.

We are having our business offices in India, USA & Germany to ensure our best services.

Total Pageviews, Development and Marketing Services., All About Travel.